We are interested in PURSUING research related to bioluminescence theory and application, Health of our Global microbiome, and myco and micro-remediation.

We are committed to using state of the art technology to achieve our goals. 

It is our mission with the Light Wand, and future Nyoka endeavours, to research practical applications of bioluminescence technology alongside a restorative function to replenish soil health. With the Light Wand as a transport vector for selected species, such as local mushroom spores, their use continues long after the party. The nutrients contained in the seaweed casing and bioluminescence protein, along with the added water and biochar in the bio-plug, create an 'seed bomb' that will help to kickstart added inoculants.

We know that as micro-biodiversity drops, so does ecological homeostasis regulated in part by the complex network of microbial metabolic interactions alongside symbiotic fungi. This is why we have connected with Fungi Perfecti to develop an ecosystem specific Seed Bomb for the Pacific Northwest as a starting place.

Research Libraries

We get really excited about research, and want to share that with you! As we continue building our website we'll share our favourite resources here. Topics will include bioluminescence, biomaterials, environmental remediation, permaculture and restorative design principles, and probably a lot more as we continue to grow. 

We've included many of our favourite resources, but keep in mind that these lists are not meant to be comprehensive breakdowns of each subject. We aim to give you a starting point to get excited about these topics yourself!

 - Nerd out with us - 

Let us know your favourite information hot-spots and we'll add them to our library!

Bioluminescence Research Library:

1) Websites: - a rich resource on the topic of photobiology. Scroll down to view their bioluminescence section, which features many pages detailing the history, research, biochemistry, and more of bioluminescence and biofluorescence. 

The Bioluminescence Web Page - everything you need to know about bioluminescence lives here. This web page was started in 1997 to 'educate and inspire'. The site is updated frequently with the latest information on the science of bioluminescence. They also debunk claims of bioluminescence which are in fact, simply bio-fluorescence. Not sure what that means? Check out the site!

The Smithsonian Bioluminescence Portal - a fun read with lots of photos, explaining the biochemistry of bioluminescence, then delving into the evolutionary and biological aspects of this phenomenon. 

Biobay Info - website dedicated to the conservation of bioluminescent bays, specifically focusing on Puerto Mosquito, a bioluminescent bay in Vieques, Puerto Rico. There is a whole different body of knowledge surrounding the ecosystems and relationships sustaining these bioluminescent ecosystems.
* Paige launched this site and works closely with the Vieques Conservation and Historical Trust (VCHT).

2) Books/Publications:

A History of Bioluminescence from the Earliest Times, by Harvey E. Newton (1957)
This book is entirely available online! Not for the feint of heart, but is recommended reading for those with an interest in bioluminescence and scientific history.

Journal of Photobiology and Photochemistry, a scientific journal dedicated to publishing the latest research in the field of photobiology and photochemistry

4) Blogs and Online Articles:

The Secret History of Bioluminescence -  the Hakai Magazine
"Illuminating maps during war, guiding planes to safety, making genes and proteins visible—organisms get their glow on to help humans."

Bioluminescence in Dinoflagellates - the Tree of Life Web Project
"One of the most spectacular forms of marine bioluminescence (often incorrectly called “marine phosphorescence“) is produced by dinoflagellates"

Hunting Mushrooms, and What Makes Some Glow in the Dark - the New York Times
"Here’s what I was told: Get away from the city, go during a new moon and keep my flashlight off. When the sky faded black enough to spot stars twinkling, I’d be able to see mushrooms glowing."

Bioluminescence - Shit You Didn't Know About Biology
*highly recommended, if you don't mind the odd curse word
"If it’s alive and luminescing, boom, you’ve got an example of a complex chemical cascade that allows sacks of meat not so different from ourselves to light up like a goddamned Christmas tree." 

Millions of tropical sea creatures invade waters off B.C. coast - CBC News
In 2017 a warm water surge brought millions of invasive bioluminescent species called pyrosomes as far north as Alaska, disrupting the local fishers who's nets were full of these inedible creatures. 

3) Scientific Papers:

Chan, H. Y., M. C. Cheung, Y. Gao, A. L. Miller, and S. E. Webb. "Expression and Reconstitution of the Bioluminescent Ca(2+) Reporter Aequorin in Human Embryonic Stem Cells, and Exploration of the Presence of Functional IP3 and Ryanodine Receptors during the Early Stages of Their Differentiation into Cardiomyocytes.Science China. Life Sciences. U.S. National Library of Medicine, Aug. 2016. Web. 11 July 2017. Link.
*novel application of bioluminescent Ca(2+) reporter as a visual indicator in the investigation of specific cell differentiation in human embryonic development. 

Deheyn, D., M. Jangoux, and M. Warnau. "Alteration of Bioluminescence in Amphipholis Squamata (Ophiuroidea: Echinodermata) by Heavy Metals Contamination: A Field Study.The Science of the Total Environment. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 28 Feb. 2000. Web. 11 July 2017. Link

Fukuba, T., Y. Aoki, N. Fukuzawa, T. Yamamoto, M. Kyo, and T. Fujii. "A Microfluidic in Situ Analyzer for ATP Quantification in Ocean Environments.Lab on a Chip. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 21 Oct. 2011. Web. 11 July 2017. Link

Haddock, S. H., M. A. Moline, and J. F. Case. "Bioluminescence in the Sea.Annual Review of Marine Science. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 11 July 2017. Link

Hanley, K. A., and E. A. Widder. "Bioluminescence in Dinoflagellates: Evidence That the Adaptive Value of Bioluminescence in Dinoflagellates Is Concentration Dependent."Photochemistry and Photobiology. U.S. National Library of Medicine, Mar. 2017. Web. 11 July 2017. Link.

Lapota, D., A. R. Osorio, C. Liao, and B. Bjorndal. "The Use of Bioluminescent Dinoflagellates as an Environmental Risk Assessment Tool.Marine Pollution Bulletin. U.S. National Library of Medicine, Dec. 2007. Web. 11 July 2017. Link

Latz, M. I., M. Bovard, V. VanDelinder, E. Segre, J. Rohr, and A. Groisman. "Bioluminescent Response of Individual Dinoflagellate Cells to Hydrodynamic Stress Measured with Millisecond Resolution in a Microfluidic Device.The Journal of Experimental Biology.U.S. National Library of Medicine, Sept. 2008. Web. 11 July 2017. Link

Martini, S., and S. H. Haddock. "Quantification of Bioluminescence from the Surface to the Deep Sea Demonstrates Its Predominance as an Ecological Trait.Scientific Reports.U.S. National Library of Medicine, 04 Apr. 2017. Web. 11 July 2017. Link.
*bioluminescence is more common than you think!

Mittag, M. "Circadian Rhythms in Microalgae.International Review of Cytology. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 11 July 2017. Link

Rees, J. F., B. De, O. Noiset, M. Dubuisson, B. Janssens, and E. M. Thompson. "The Origins of Marine Bioluminescence: Turning Oxygen Defence Mechanisms into Deep-sea Communication Tools.The Journal of Experimental Biology. U.S. National Library of Medicine, Apr. 1998. Web. 11 July 2017. Link

Wang, Q., L. Li, and B. Xu. "Bioinspired Supramolecular Confinement of Luminol and Heme Proteins to Enhance the Chemiluminescent Quantum Yield.Chemistry (Weinheim an Der Bergstrasse, Germany). U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 11 July 2017. Link.
*interesting approach of using bioluminescence-inspired artificial cell environments to improve detection limits in medical imaging. 

Zhang, D., A. Ding, S. Cui, C. Hu, S. F. Thornton, J. Dou, Y. Sun, and W. E. Huang. "Whole Cell Bioreporter Application for Rapid Detection and Evaluation of Crude Oil Spill in Seawater Caused by Dalian Oil Tank Explosion." Water Research. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 01 Mar. 2013. Web. 11 July 2017. Link.


Myco/microremediation Library:


1) Websites:

Fungi for the People - an online mushroom research and cultivation resource, with a great 'myco glossary' as well as information on permaculture approach.

Fungi Perfecti - Paul Stamets (prominent mycologist) company, a great resource for all skill levels! Browse for a range of information, and a store to purchase some spore blends, mushroom supplements, and more. 

Radical Mycology - Another great resource that also just created the Worlds First Online Mycology School! Also offers the 'Mycelial Network' - an online group you can join to connect with fellow mushroom enthusiasts. 

2) Books/Publications:

Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save The World, by Paul Stamets of Fungi Pefecti

Radical Mycology: A Treatise On Seeing & Working With Fungi, Peter McCoy

Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation, Open Access Scientific Journal


3) Scientific Papers:

A. D’Annibale, F. Rosetto, V. Leonardi, F. Federici, and M. Petruccioli, 2006. “Role of Autochthonous Filamentous Fungi in Bioremediation of a Soil Historically Contaminated with Aromatic Hydrocarbons” American Society for Microbiology

Christopher J. Rhodes. 2014. Mycoremediation (bioremediation with fungi) – growing mushrooms to clean the earth. Chemical Speciation & Bioavailability. Vol. 26, Iss. 3, 2014. Link.

Cajthaml, T., M. Bhatt, V. Šašek, and V. Mateju. 2002. “Bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by composting:A case study.” Folia Microbiologica 47(6): 696-700

M. Bhatt, T. Cajthaml and V. Šašek, 2002. “Mycoremediation of PAH-contaminated soils.” Folia Microbiologica, Springer Netherlands,Volume 47, Number 3 / June.

Šašek, V., John A. Glaser, Philippe Baveye, 2000. “The utilization of bioremediation to reduce soil contamination: Problems and Solutions.” Nato Science Series IV. Earth and Environmental Sciences vol. 19.

Šašek, V. 2003. “Why mycoremediations have not yet come into practice” The Utilization of Bioremediation to Reduce Soil Contamination: Problems and Solutions, 247-266.Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.

Y. Sağ. Biosorption of Heavy Metals by Fungal Biomass and Modeling of Fungal Biosorption: A Review. Separation and Purification Methods. Vol. 30, Iss. 1, 2001. Link.



3. Restorative Design Theory 

~ under construction ~

1. Websites


2. Books/Publications:


3. Scientific Papers

Andrew Trant, "Intertidal resource use over millennia enhances forest productivity."  Nature Communications. Volume 7, Article number: 12491 (2016). Link